E-ISSN 1858-8360 | ISSN 0256-4408
 

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Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.

Omer S M Suliman; Mustafa A M Salih; Zein A Karrar; Abdelrahim O Mohammed; Chrestover Helsing.

Abstract
A hospital-based case control study was carried out to determine the pattern of infections and immunoblobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The pre-dietary rehabilitation levels of the three major immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) were compared with those of normal controls, and with the levels after dietary rehabilitation. Eighty one children were included in the study: 49 with severe PEM (23 with marasmus, 17 with marasmic - kwashiorkor and 9 with kwashiorkor), 13 with tuberculosis and 19 healthy children as controls. The study showed high incidence of infections, especially pneumonia and gastrointestinal infections in the malnourished children. Of special concern was the high incidence of urinary tract infection: 13 (26.5%) had significant pyuria and 9 of them had positive urine cultures, mainly Escherichia coli. Eight of the malnourished children also had pulmonary TB, and the ESR and Mantoux tests were not helpful in the diagnosis. The Mantoux test was negative in 88.8% of the malnourished group compared to 62.5% in those malnourished with TB. The malnourished groups had significantly higher plasma levels of the 3 immunoglobulins. While the maramic group attained significantly higher levels of IgG and IgA compared to the marasmic -kwashiorkor and kwashiorkor groups, the 3 groups of PEM showed a uniformly higher level of the IgM. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, the levels of the 3 immunoglobulins showed no significant changes, except for the IgA which significantly decreased in all malnourished and the oedematous groups, and the IgM which increased significantly in the oedematous group.

Key words: Acute respiratory infection; Diarrhoea; Escherichia coli; Immunoglobulins; Infections; Proteinenergy malnutrition; Sudanese children; Tuberculosis; Urinary tract infection


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Suliman OSM, Salih MAM, Karrar ZA, Mohammed AO, Helsing C. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudan J Paed. 2011; 11(2): 32-42.


Web Style

Suliman OSM, Salih MAM, Karrar ZA, Mohammed AO, Helsing C. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. http://www.sudanjp.com/?mno=280778 [Access: November 24, 2021].


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Suliman OSM, Salih MAM, Karrar ZA, Mohammed AO, Helsing C. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudan J Paed. 2011; 11(2): 32-42.



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Suliman OSM, Salih MAM, Karrar ZA, Mohammed AO, Helsing C. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudan J Paed. (2011), [cited November 24, 2021]; 11(2): 32-42.



Harvard Style

Suliman, O. S. M., Salih, . M. A. M., Karrar, . Z. A., Mohammed, . A. O. & Helsing, . C. (2011) Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudan J Paed, 11 (2), 32-42.



Turabian Style

Suliman, Omer S M, Mustafa A M Salih, Zein A Karrar, Abdelrahim O Mohammed, and Chrestover Helsing. 2011. Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics, 11 (2), 32-42.



Chicago Style

Suliman, Omer S M, Mustafa A M Salih, Zein A Karrar, Abdelrahim O Mohammed, and Chrestover Helsing. "Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.." Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics 11 (2011), 32-42.



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Suliman, Omer S M, Mustafa A M Salih, Zein A Karrar, Abdelrahim O Mohammed, and Chrestover Helsing. "Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.." Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics 11.2 (2011), 32-42. Print.



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Suliman, O. S. M., Salih, . M. A. M., Karrar, . Z. A., Mohammed, . A. O. & Helsing, . C. (2011) Infection and immunoglobulin levels in Sudanese children with severe protein-energy malnutrition.. Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics, 11 (2), 32-42.





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